# Time Series Forecast of Annual Financial Statement 2018-19

The finale for the buzzing-B word which was hitting the headlines for the past fortnight has come to an end. The nail biting event anguished which the entire nation cataloging from the ubiquitous taxpayers to the investment giants.

Lets take a sneak peek into the quintessential strands in the ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT of the UNION BUDGET. The highlighted branches under the canopy of annual financial statement are

• Capital Account Receipts
• Capital Account Disbursement
• Revenue Account Receipts
• Revenue Account Disbursement
• Public Account Receipts
• Public Account Disbursement

Revenue Receipts covers the tax revenues (like income tax, excise duty) and non-tax revenue (interest receipts, profits)

Capital Receipts holds money from market borrowings, recovery of loans etc.

Public Receipts act as medium for the flow of transaction, where government is merely acting as a banker (for instance: provident fund and small savings)

For a quick analysis of the aforementioned statements, ARIMA modelling is used to forecast for the upcoming two years (ie; 2018 and 2019).

ARIMA MODEL TO FORECAST THE ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT

Here is the synopsis of the CAPITAL ACCOUNT DISBURSEMENT using ARIMA:

The Capital Account  Revenue statement is taken as the analysis sample:

The time series data is subjected to Augmented Dickey Fuller test for check the stationarity of the data

```>x1<-log(CAR\$AMOUNT)

Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test

data:  x1

Dickey-Fuller = -1.6901, Lag order = 2, p-value = 0.6904

alternative hypothesis: stationary```

Since the data is not stationary, multiple differentiation is applied

```>x2<-diff(x1)
Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test data:
x2Dickey-Fuller = -1.9368,
Lag order = 2, p-value = 0.5965
alternative hypothesis: stationary
Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test data:
x3Dickey-Fuller = -3.3127, Lag order = 2, p-value = 0.0899
alternative hypothesis: stationary
Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test data:
x4Dickey-Fuller = -5.214, Lag order = 2, p-value = 0.01
alternative hypothesis: stationary```

The third difference gave a stationary data series

Auto Correlation Function and Partial Auto Correlation Function is employed to find out the order of the data series.

>acf(x1) ```> pacf(x1) And the order of the data series is obtained as:
AR=1,
I=3,
MA=0

```
```> model1
<-arima(x1,order=c(1,3,0))
> summary(model1)
Length Class  Mode
coef       1     -none- numeric
sigma2     1     -none- numeric
var.coef   1     -none- numeric
loglik     1     -none- numeric
aic        1     -none- numeric
arma       7     -none- numeric
residuals 23     ts     numeric
call       3     -none- call
series     1     -none- character
code       1     -none- numeric
n.cond     1     -none- numeric
nobs       1     -none- numeric
model     10     -none- list
> model1\$coef
ar1 -0.514188```

And ARIMA model is employed to data and prediction function is used for forecasting for the years 2018 and 2019.

```>pred1
<-predict(model1,2)
> pred1
\$pred
Time Series:
Start = 24
End = 25
Frequency = 1
 16.03107 16.27264
\$se
Time Series:
Start = 24
End = 25
Frequency = 1
 0.3043931 0.8155953```

And the forecasted values are plotted.

```>x2<-c(x1,16.03107,16.27264)
> x3<-cbind(x1,x2)
>View(x3)
> x3[24:25]<-NA
>x4<-exp(x3)
> plot(x4[,1],lwd=10,type="l",xlab="YEAR",ylab="AMOUNT")
> lines(x4[,2],col="pink",lwd=3)```

FORECASTED ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

``` \$pred
Time Series:
Start = 24
End = 25
Frequency = 1
 16.03107 16.27264
\$se
Time Series:
Start = 24
End = 25
Frequency = 1
 0.3043931 0.8155953```
``` PUBLIC RECEIPTS  REVENUE RECEIPTS  ```

 Particular FORECASTED AMOUNT(IN CR) 2018 2019 Capital Account Receipts 9166536 11671260 Capital Account Disbursement 9413355 12218601 Revenue Account Receipts 10374796 12995712 Revenue Account Disbursement 11475796 13996711 Public Account Receipts 2419569 2708620 Public Account Disbursement 2437077 2734721

KEY INSIGHTS FROM THE FORECAST

GST surveillance will incorporate more taxpayers under the same canopy which is significantly reflected in the uptick of forecasted Revenue Account Receipts for the years 2018 and 2019.

There is a chance of more disinvestment of public sector units, trailed by hike in borrowings and recoveries of NPA which in turn outlines in the Capital Account Receipts.

Proclivity to improve interest rates for provident fund, to lure more investment from the public, there is a increment in the Public Account Receipts which justifies the forecast.